The Texada Island Connection,

A Continuation of BC’s Coal Saga compiled from stories in the ECOreport 

Welcome Beach on Texada Island, with Lafarge's coal facility in the distance

Lafarge Canada’s coal facility on Texada Island is involved in BC’s plan to become the biggest coal exporter in North America. It currently handles Close to 400,000 tonnes of coal a year, from Quinsam Mine in the Comox/Courtenay region of Vancouver Island. If the proposed Fraser Surrey Dock’s coal terminal is approved, up to 8 million tonnes of coal may pass through Texada. That decision will have to wait until June, but in April BC Environmental Assessment Office inadvertently disclosed the fact Large’s permit had already been amended when they emailed an activist that:

“On March 12, 2014, the Ministry of Energy and Mines issued a Mines Act amendment with conditions to Texada Quarrying Ltd [Lafarge]. I suggest that you follow up directly with the Ministry of Energy and Mines if you have any questions regarding the amendment.”

“Was it only an inadvertent slip that the EAO email mentioned the permit had been issued?  Was government intentionally trying to keeping this quiet, or had staff simply not bothered to inform the public, our Ministers and MLA’s that the permit had been issued?” asks Donald Gordon, spokesperson for Coal Dust Free Salish Sea and Voters Taking Action on Climate Change director.  “Either way, it’s outrageous that First Nations, Regional Districts and residents were not promptly notified of a government decision on a highly contentious issue.  Is it likely that Lafarge has been kept in the dark about this approval for the past four weeks?”

Large chunks of coal between the rocks

Chief Calvin Craigan of the shíshálh (Sechelt) Nation issued the following statement on learning of the decision:

“The provincial government is making it clear that they intend to try to push their agenda through at all costs.  They are amending laws, ignoring coastal communities, ignoring First Nations, and ignoring the impacts of this project on resources in our traditional territory.  This project is not in the best interests of any coastal community.  The Sechelt First Nation, local governments and coastal residents will stand together to stop this project.  We have no choice.”

The Government’s secrecy was not the only problem. Lafarge’s permit  explicitly prohibits release of coal into the “water or foreshore” at the coal loading facility, yet as you can see from numerous photos on this page, the beach is contaminated.

After being notified, twice, the Ministry of Environment finally sent out a technician who reported “no coal was noted outside of the stockpile area, a small strip of land along the beach showed up as black. This was not noted from the air, but was picked up when the investigator walked the area. Six samples of the soil , sand, rock and debris (mostly wood chips like material) were taken and sealed. These samples were turned over to the coal geologist with the Geological Survey branch for analysis . She did a detailed analysis and advised me there was no coal in the samples.”

70 pounds of coal gathered from Welcome Beach in an hour

Local residents and land owners geo-referenced, photographed and collected coal samples for testing by an independent lab.

Lab results show a chemical signature consistent with coal and the high levels of arsenic suggested the Quinsam coal mine was the source. (Earlier studies have shown elevated levels of arsenic in coal mined at Quinsam.)  Environmental specialist Dr André Sobolewski found the elevated level of arsenic in the samples troubling, even more so as local First Nations are harvesting shellfish in this area. He urged MOE to conduct immediate follow up studies to determine if arsenic contaminates local shellfish.

“We have clear evidence that Lafarge is already allowing coal to escape from its current small stockpiles into the surrounding beaches and foreshore. We’ve brought that evidence to the Ministry of Mines, but they have dismissed it and are doing nothing to address what appears to be a significant breach of Lafarge’s existing permit. We’ve had to collect donations to have coal samples tested in the lab because government is not doing its job.” said Donald Gordon.  “Why should we expect that Lafarge and the Ministry of Mines will do a better job when they are handling 8 million tonnes of coal a year?”


There are some wood chips mixed in with these particles on the beach

Fifty one of BC’s faith leaders subsequently wrote BC’s Premier, Christy Clark, an open letter requesting she reconsider her decision to approve the expansion of coal facilities on Texada Island.

They said coal is “the fossil fuel most directly linked to the rise of CO2 emissions in China” and “making money at the expense of the health and prosperity of the planet is wrong.”

They are leaders of the Sikh, Jewish, Unitarian, Quaker, Roman Catholic, Anglican, United Church of Canada, Presbyterian, and Evangelical Lutheran communities.

Most come from the Lower Mainland area, but there were some from Vancouver Island, Powell River and even Texada Island.

Some finer particles, washed by waves

Some finer particles, washed by waves

“This has global implications,” Rabbi David Mivasair, of Ahavat Olam Synagogue in Vancouver, told the ECOreport. “It also impacts us here and we can do something about this here.

“In May of 2012 Premier Clark stated that responsibility for climate change does not stop at BC’s borders.  She also claimed that BC LNG exports would be good for the world and good for the climate because they would allow other countries to wean themselves off of dirty sources of energy like thermal coal,” said Rosemary Cornell, a member of the Sustainability Circle at Canadian Memorial United Church and letter organizer.  “However, when asked to take a stand on current plans to export US thermal coal from Fraser Surrey Docks and Texada Island to be burned in Asian power plants, the Premier has remained silent.  The letter sent yesterday by faith leaders encourages her to consider the moral implications of promoting export of a fuel that is contributing to horrific air pollution in China and rising CO2 emissions worldwide.”

“Our province has shown strong leadership in the past on commitments to reduce GHG emissions and our municipalities have robust plans to reduce carbon output. The traffic in coal is not compatible with those plans,” the collective letter states.

“In our weekly sermons we encourage our congregations to adopt a sustainable lifestyle. Many of them are walking the talk, reducing their carbon footprint in their daily choices of what they buy and how they travel. Now our congregations are asking us to act as emissaries of their message to you, to embrace a shift in the way to do business. Therefore we will not stand idly by when we see local actions that will contribute to climate destabilization.”

The type of scene they would rather have associated with Texada

The type of scene they would rather have associated with Texada

This Morning, May 15,  Voters Taking Action on Climate Change (VTACC) has served the Ministry of Energy and Mines (MEM) and Texada Quarries Limited (TQL) with notice that it is bringing a court case challenging the legality of MEM’s recent approval of a major coal export expansion on Texada Island.

They are arguing that:

  1. that bulk coal storage and shipping facilities are regulated under the Environmental Management Act, not the Mines Act, and a waste discharge permit is required before this project can proceed;
  2. important information about how contaminated run-off from the site will be managed was not shared with the concerned public prior to the permit being issued.

If successful, the Voters Taking Action challenge will require the MEM permit to be set aside and the Environmental Management Act applied to the project.

Another view of the Beach

Another view of the Beach

“We see no other option than to take the government to court” said Donald Gordon of adjacent Lasqueti Island. “The Province has ignored evidence of ongoing coal contamination, rejected the pleas of public health officials, dismissed citizens’ and First Nations’ call for an independent environmental assessment of this project, and refused to apply its own pollution prevention laws under the Environmental Management Act. We cannot sit back and watch while this massive coal export facility is illegally authorized without adequate review.”

To be Continued

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The Biggest Coal Exporter in North America

A compilation from stories in the ECOreport

Not too long ago, there were plans to ship 80 million tons of coal through six terminals in Washington and Oregon. Now there are three. Domestic coal burning plants are being phased out in both states. Their Governors expressed concerns further expansion would lead to  “air quality and climate impacts in the United States that dwarf almost any other action the federal government could take in the foreseeable future.” So the coal industry has sought new outlets to the North, in British Colimbia’s Lower Mainland.

There has been a dramatic increase in the amount of coal entering BC since 2010. Though coal burning plants cannot be built in the province, because of climate change regulations, this does not prevent the province from exporting coal. There are plans to make BC the biggest coal exporter in North America. The existing terminals at Delta and North Vancouver are being expanded and a new facility is proposed for Surrey.

Map of Proposed Coal Expansion - Courtesy video Save the Salish Sea

Map of Proposed Coal Expansion – Courtesy the Wilderness Committee’s video Save the Salish Sea

Westshore Coal Export Terminal at Roberts Bank

Westshore coal export terminal at Roberts Bank, in Delta, is the largest export facility on the Pacific coast and there are plans to make it larger. Denis Horgan, Vice President of Westshore Terminal at Roberts Bank in Delta – the largest coal export facility on the Pacific coast – said the $230 million project is more about “staying efficient,” and carefully used the words “stockpile expansion.”

Neptune Terminals in North Vancouver

This is not the only facility expanding. Last year, Port Metro approved a $200 million expansion of Neptune Terminal’s coal handling facility in North Vancouver. It is now be capable of handling 18.5 million tonnes a year, twice its former capacity.

According to Kevin Washburn, of Voters Taking Action on Climate Change (VTACC),  the Port Authority rushed through its decision on the Neptune expansion in January of 2013 despite growing opposition and demands for public hearings and a health impact assessment of the proposal.

In late 2013 North Vancouver city council passed a motion calling on the Port Authority to conduct a health impact assessment of the Neptune decision.  The Port Authority has not responded to this request.

On January 11, 2014, a 152-car coal train, heading for Neptune Terminals in North Vancouver, to derail in Burnaby this afternoon. Seven cars went off the tracks near Government and Cariboo Roads, near Burnaby Lake. Three of the cars spilled their loads.  As you can see from the photo at the top of this page, at least one of these emptied its load into a protected waterway. No one was injured.

Emily Hamer, a spokeswoman for CNR, said she did not know how much of the coal went into the water or whether CPR or CNR, which owns the tracks, is responsible for the derailment of the 152-car train.

Washburn issued a press release saying, “The accident today in Burnaby highlights a fundamental flaw in decision making around expanded coal exports in Metro Vancouver.”

“The Port Authority has absolute power to approve expanded coal exports from publicly owned Port lands, and it refuses to acknowledge that those decisions have an impact on surrounding communities. Whether it’s the health impacts from increased exposure to diesel exhaust or coal dust or train derailments themselves, increased coal exports come at a cost to our neighborhoods.  Local and regional governments and our health authorities deserve a say in these decisions.”

Neptune terminals in North Vancouver - Courtesy Save the Salish Sea

Neptune terminals in North Vancouver – Courtesy the WIlderness Committee’s video Save the Salish Sea

Fraser Surrey Docks

There is also a proposed $15-million project that would allow Warren Buffet’s Burlington Northern Santa Fe Railway to bring up to four million tonnes of American coal to Fraser Surrey Docks every year. The coal would be barged to Texada Island and then loaded onto ocean-going vessels.

SNC Lavalin, hired by Surrey Fraser Docks to conduct an environmental assessment, claimed the proposal would “not likely cause significant adverse effects to the environment or human health.”

After reviewing SNC Lavelin’s report, chief medical health officers Dr. Patricia Daly and Dr. Paul Van Buynder concluded that it is “primarily a repackaging of work previously done by other consultants” that does not “deal with the full scope of the project” or “meet even the most basic requirements of a health impact assessment.”

Some of the specifics they felt were missing are:

• Data regarding population increases in Surrey or Delta, or comments on the effect this increase would have on the most vulnerable population (children and elderly) over the proposed life time of the project.
• The segment dealing with coal dust mitigation leaned too heavily on a 25-year-old report and while it was suggested that sealants could address this problem, no proof was given.
• There was “little consideration of the increase in diesel emissions from trains, barges, trucks and idling vehicles at railway crossings.”
• It was not appropriate to use a letter written in 1998 to address concerns about dust from Westshore Terminals fifteen years later.
• The sections on air quality monitoring and emergency vehicle access were inadequate.

• There was no indication that residents of the surrounding area were properly consulted.

The United Steelworkers and the International Longshore and Warehouse Union have written letters in support of the project, but most of the surrounding communities have voiced their opposition.

Paula Williams, head of the community group, Communities and Coal, said she has never been involved in anything like this before.

“We came here because it was quiet and peaceful and a good place to raise kids, and it was close to the beach,” she said. “Little did we know what was looming – although I think, quite honestly, this was all meant to be. Protesting anything – unless you’re part of an environmental group – seems un-Canadian.”

The BC Nurses Union, Vancouver Coastal Health, the school boards of Burnaby and Vancouver and the municipal councils of Surrey, Delta, and White Rock have raised objections.

BC’s biggest credit union, VanCity, promptly urged Port Metro Vancouver to not move forward with the proposal until the health officer’s concerns were addressed.

One of the strongest objections came from Burnaby, where Mayor Derek Corrigan said, “Over and over again, decisions are being made by bodies who are not independent. Port Metro Vancouver is conducting this environmental assessment. The majority of directors on Port Metro Vancouver are appointed by the very companies that stand to economically benefit from these decisions. And so here you have a Board of Directors, appointed by the companies that are in charge of the environmental assessment to determine if they are going to make more money.”

In regards to the decision to hire SNC Lavalin, Mayor Corrigan said the company is currently being investigated for corruption in Montreal and the World Bank has banned them for ten years because of corruption.

“If this company has been banned by the World Bank, why the heck are they doing environmental assessments in our back yard?” Corrigan said. “This is completely losing control of any public interest in these projects what-so-ever.”

(Click on this link to access a video of Mayor Corrigan saying these things.) Burnaby’s council voted unanimously to oppose expansion of coal exports.

Another view of Neptune Terminals - Courtesy Save the Salish Sea

Another view of Neptune Terminals – Courtesy the WIlderness Committee’s video “Save the Salish Sea

In response to a request from Port Metro Vancouver, Surrey Fraser Docks hired SNC Lavalin to do a health assessment.

Tim Blair, Senior Planner of Port Metro Vancouver, told the ECOreport this report will not be reviewed by any medical personal and the Port be seeking any additional opinions.

He believes there is already sufficient information about the effects of coal dust in current literature.

The Peace Arch News reports that Dr. Paul Van Buynder was pleased that there will be further inquiries, but also disappointed there will be no further formal comment from the medial community allowed.

“I believe this work should be done in consultation with health experts and in a fashion transparent to the concerned public,” Van Buynder said in an emailed statement. “It is important for the credibility of any further review and the decision outcome that the process is not undertaken by the proponent in isolation of public health.”

Port Metro has retained a consultant, Golder and Associates, to analyze Fraser Surrey Docks health assessment and will make its decision this June. They will post the results for everyone to see.

To be continued …..

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Canadians Take To The Streets To “Defend Our Climate”

Originally published in the ECOreport. On Saturday, May 10, thousands of Canadians took to the streets to “Defend our Climate.” Demonstrations  were held in every province except Newfoundland, as well as in the Yukon and Nunavik. The Canadian government appears to have leagued itself to the fossil fuel industry and is pushing numerous coal, natural

Canadians Take To The Streets To “Defend Our Climate” was originally published on CleanTechnica.

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California Grandfathers Existing Solar Arrays In, Rates Won’t Change For 20 Years

Originally published on the ECOreport. The California Public Utilities Commission (CPUC) has ruled that existing rooftop solar arrays can keep selling electricity to the grid at current rates for 20 years. This applies to all customers of Pacific Gas and Electric Company, San Diego Gas & Electric Company, and Southern California Edison Company. The CPUC’s decision was

California Grandfathers Existing Solar Arrays In, Rates Won’t Change For 20 Years was originally published on CleanTechnica.

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DOE Map Helps Tell The Story Of US Wind Development

Originally Published on the ECOreport. A new Department of Energy map is a bit of an eye opener for those of us getting skeptical about the Golden State’s wind potential. According to an article in the Wallstreet Journal, wind power makes sense in Texas, but not in California, “which isn’t located in the ‘wind belt.’” That may be

DOE Map Helps Tell The Story Of US Wind Development was originally published on CleanTechnica.

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Solar Storage Scandal In California (In Depth)

Originally published on the ECOreport. SolarCity spokesperson Will Craven said that about 500 of their California customers have agreed to install batteries for power storage, but the state’s three biggest utilities have only connected 12 since 2011. He decided to go to the press after Southern California Edison (SCE) said they were going to charge

Solar Storage Scandal In California (In Depth) was originally published on CleanTechnica.

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Putting Up Reliable Solar Mounting Systems

Originally Published on the ECOreport. There are currently approximately 400,000 homes in the US with rooftop solar arrays and by 2024 solar panels may be more common than satellite dishes. In their white paper, “The Importance of Reliable Solar Mounting Systems,” Barry Cinnamon, Liz Oh, and a consortium of experts in the solar industry provide

Putting Up Reliable Solar Mounting Systems was originally published on CleanTechnica.

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USA High-Speed Rail Gets Boost — 32-Train Order For Siemens Trains

Originally published by the ECOreport.

Rendering of Siemens "Charger" diesel-electric locomotives - courtesy Siemens

Rendering of Siemens “Charger” diesel-electric locomotives – courtesy Siemens

Siemens has obtained a $225 million contract to build 32 “Charger” diesel-electric locomotives in its Sacramento rail manufacturing facility for US high-speed rail projects.

Five states are ordering locomotives. The Illinois Department of Transportation’s order is connected to an overhaul of its Chicago to St Louis route. California, Washington, Michigan, and Missouri have joined the deal, which includes options for an additional 75 locomotives for regional use and another 150 locomotives for mainline transportation. The locomotives are scheduled to be delivered between fall of 2016 and mid-2017.

“For Siemens this order marks our entry into the US diesel-electric locomotive market and strongly underscores our long-term vision for the US passenger rail market,” Jochen Eickholt, CEO of the Siemens Rail Systems Division, emphasized.

“The new Charger locomotives represent the next-generation of equipment advancing high performance intercity passenger rail in the Midwest, California and Pacific Northwest,” said Federal Railroad Administrator Joseph C. Szabo. “This state of the art equipment will accelerate and brake more quickly, reducing trip times for passengers, as well as being more fuel efficient and burning cleaner than previous locomotives for the benefit of the environment.”

The lighter weight locomotives can operate at speeds up to 125 mph. A diesel version of the “Charger” is currently pulling some 1,600 passenger and freight trains through-out Europe. The electric version was introduced in the US last year and already at work in the Northeast.

Train passing through a railway crossing against a blue sky with an interesting cloudscape. Motion blur is used to show the movement of the train. - Courtesy Siemens

Train passing through a railway crossing against a blue sky with an interesting cloudscape. Motion blur is used to show the movement of the train. – Courtesy Siemens

Some of the other features described in the Siemens press release include:

A state-of-the-art microprocessor control system manages the performance of the locomotive and performs self-diagnosis of technical issues, takes self-corrective action and notifies the locomotive engineer and the remote maintenance facility of any required corrective action. In addition, there are redundant systems to ensure optimal performance and availability such as a totally redundant auxiliary power supply for the passenger coaches to keep primary systems such as lighting, communications, heating and cooling systems working. The locomotives meet the latest federal rail safety regulations, including enhanced carbody structure safety with crash energy management components.

In total, this new rail equipment can help operators achieve cost savings by enabling reduced trip times, while improving reliability and efficiency for its passenger rail service. The lighter weight of these locomotives ensures the ability to safely operate the locomotives at speeds of up to 125 mph more efficiently, requiring less maintenance for both the locomotive and the infrastructure.

All the locomotives main components will be produced in Siemens plants in the United States.

USA High-Speed Rail Gets Boost — 32-Train Order For Siemens Trains was originally published on CleanTechnica. To read more from CleanTechnica, join over 50,000 other subscribers: Google+ | Email | Facebook | RSS | Twitter.

Rumours Of William Koch Leaving The Coal Business Are False

Originally Published in the ECOreport.


The rumours of William Koch’s departure from the coal business are incorrect.

According to a reporter from E&E, Koch said, “The coal business in the United States has kind of died, so we’re out of the coal business now. Generally, people and businesses try to do the thing that’s most economical. A lot of the profit has gone out of the coal business…. Fortunately, no one got hurt, but if we went back in, it could have killed people, so we’re saying, ‘All right, we’re going to close it.’”

Only, according to Koch’s PR person, Brad Goldstein, the closure was never meant to be permanent. The mine is shut down until Oxbow acquires a new long wall and other equipment that was lost in the fire.

This also happens to be what Mike Ludlow, the President of Oxbow Mining, said when the shut down was first announced:

“We are idling the mine until we are able to install a replacement longwall and other equipment,” Ludlow stated. “We are working on the engineering and procurement of a replacement longwall and other equipment as quickly as possible.”

In that same article, it states:

It’s expected the mine shutdown, however temporary, will have a significant effect on the local economy and Delta County.

The Elk Creek Mine is estimated to have generated $36 million per year in wages and contributed about $90 million annually to the local economy. The average pay for a miner at Elk Creek was two to three times the non-mining average in the region.

“I am deeply concerned about the effect the Elk Creek Mine closure will have on the families supported by this mine as well as the North Fork Valley community as a whole,” State Rep. Don Coram, R-Montrose, said in a statement.

Far from getting out of the business, Oxbow is continuing to market coal in Europe and Asia.

Goldstein also clarified some other rumours.

Greenpeace reported that there had been 2,000 mining violations at the Elk Creek Mine. Goldstein did not know if the number is accurate, but said if it is, those stats would be over a twenty-five year period.

“The number of our citations is way below the industry average,” he said. “Our worker’s safety is very important to us. We treat every citation seriously.”

Regarding Koch’s much-touted opposition to the Cape Wind project, Goldstein said that is mostly Jim Gordon creating publicity. It is true Koch has given the Alliance to Protect Nantucket Sound a substantial amount of money, but the epic confrontation between these two men is not there.

“The bottom line is that the Cape Wind project is not economically feasible,” Goldstein said. “There is not enough wind for a project like this on Nantucket Sound. Nobody believes in it. The only one promoting it is Gordon and that is because he has all of his money invested in it.”

Asked if Gordon believes in Cape Wind, Goldstein replied, “I don’t know. You’ll have to ask him.”

There have also been stories about the Koch brothers operating in the petroleum coke business. Though it is true they are operating in the same market, Goldstein made it clear that William Koch is a competitor, not a partner.

This may not be the last time I write about William Koch. As some of you are probably aware, he was once into renewable technology. He referred to it in a recent interview with Commonwealth Magazine (CW):

“We at one time were the largest supplier of green energy to southern California. SoCal Edison had on its bill a box that homeowners could check off if they wanted green energy. If they checked the box off, they were then charged an extra 2 cents a kilowatt hour. They would share one cent of that with us. Over 15 years, guess how much green energy I sold to Southern California Edison?”

“How much?” CW asked 

“Zero,” Koch replied. “No one would pay. What that said to me was that California wanted green energy but homeowners didn’t want to pay for it. When it comes down to dollars and cents, people want the cheapest energy possible.” 

I would like to know what motivated Koch to get into renewable technologies, more about his experience, and why he abandoned this sector.

BTW – The William Koch you meet in that CW article is very frank, has a lot of spunk and some intriguing insight.

Image at top of page: Longwall mining –  Shearer at work in a coal mine, Picture donated by the company Eickhoff Engine Works and Iron Foundry, Bochum. cc 1.2, courtesy Wikipedia

Rumours Of William Koch Leaving The Coal Business Are False was originally published on CleanTechnica. To read more from CleanTechnica, join over 50,000 other subscribers: Google+ | Email | Facebook | RSS | Twitter.

The Non-Food Biofuel Sector Should Grow Significantly, Lux Reports

Originally Published in the ECOreport.


The biofuel industry has been enjoying a 19.6% annual growth since 2005. That is about to change. The World’s 53.2 billion gallon biofuel industry could grow to over 60 billion gallons during the next few years. Much of this will come from riskier next generation technologies.

Approximately 65.9% of global biofuel capacity in 2013 was ethanol, and this should increase slightly over the next few years.

Biodiesel shall continue to be the worlds’ second largest biofuel, and capacity should reach around 18.6 billion gallons a year by 2017.

The strongest growth will be in products like non-food diesel, butanol, biojet, and biocrude, which should increase at a rate of about 18.7% a year and control 3.3% of the market by 2017.

“Next-generation feedstocks like waste oils and cellulosic biomass are not tied up in the food supply and could unlock significant economic advantages, assuming novel conversions commercialize,” said Andrew Soare, Lux Research Senior Analyst and the lead author of the report titled, “Emerging Feedstocks and Fuels Spark Biofuel Capacity Expansion through 2017.”

“Meanwhile, next-generation fuels like renewable diesel will break down current barriers and drive long-term biofuel capacity expansion,” he added.

“Of the 782 MGY of announced cellulosic ethanol capacity, we expect 384 MGY to come to fruition, led by companies such as Beta Renewables, POET-DSM, and Abengoa,” the report states. “Renewable diesel from waste will emerge as a key biofuel process, while butanol and biocrude producers have the flexibility to sell into the chemicals market, and their effect on overall biofuel capacity remains minor.”

Close to 80% of the renewable diesel capacity over the next few years is already online, with players like Neste Oil and Diamond Green Diesel leading the market.

Gevo owns the only existent butanol facility and that is expected to come online soon.

AltAir has signed a 15 million gallon biojet contract with United Airlines. While this amount is relatively insignificant, it could signal the beginning of a shift in the industry.

Algal biofuels, such as Sapphire Energy’s much talked about green crude, are still years away from making a significant contribution to the market.

Americas’ biofuel industry enjoys high utilization and significant export, but is still threatened by regulatory instability.

There should be considerable growth in Europe, which has a 10% blending target for 2020, and in China. Non-food biofuels could meet China’s energy needs.

Lux Research analysts compiled a database of over 1,700 biofuel production facilities in 82 countries for this study

The report, “Emerging Feedstocks and Fuels Spark Biofuel Capacity Expansion through 2017,” is part of the Lux Research Alternative Fuels Intelligence service.

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